Hardy-Weinberg principle

The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that the frequencies of genotype and allele will remain constant in a population from one generation to another generation if there are no other evolutionary influences.

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Mitosis and Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Mitosis is a process of cell duplication, or reproduction, during which one cell gives rise to two genetically identical daughter cells.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and giving rise to four gametes, or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.

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Phases of Mitosis

Mitosis is the process by which a cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets, in two separate nuclei. It is a form of karyokinesis, or nuclear division. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles, and cell membrane into two cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell. This accounts for approximately 10% of the cell cycle. Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells and the process varies in different species.

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Phases of Meiosis

Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. The cells produced by meiosis are gametes. In many organisms, including all animals and land plants (but not some other groups such as fungi), gametes are called sperm and egg cells.

Meiosis begins with one diploid cell containing 2 copies of each chromosome—one from the organism’s mother and one from its father. The cell then divides twice, producing up to four haploid cells containing one copy of each chromosome. In animals the haploid cell resulting from meiosis is a male or female gamete. Each of the resulting chromosomes in the gamete cells is a unique mixture of maternal and paternal DNA, resulting in offspring that are genetically distinct from either parent. This gives rise to genetic diversity in sexually reproducing populations.

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Chromosomes, Chromatids, Chromatin

A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA, protein, and RNA found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions. Chromosomal DNA encodes most or all of an organism’s genetic information; some species also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal genetic elements.

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DNA Replication

DNA replication is the process of creating two identical copies from one original DNA molecule. DNA is composed of two strands and each strand of the original DNA molecule serves as template for the production of the complementary strand. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect DNA replication.

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What is DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a complex molecule that encodes all the genetic information that is necessary to develop all the living organisms. There is nuclear Deoxyribonucleic acid, which is located in the cell nucleus and there is also mitochondrial-Deoxyribonucleic acid or mtDNA which is located in the mitochondria.

Deoxyribonucleic acid must exist in a condensed, chromatin form in order to fit inside a cell nucleus. Since Deoxyribonucleic acid is negatively changed due to its phosphate groups, it attracts the positively charged Histone octamer (2 sets of H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) to form a nucleosome “bead”. Octamer subunits consist primarily of Lysine and Arginine amino acids, which are positively charged. H1 Ties nucleosome beads together in a string.

Deoxyribonucleic acid holds information as a code that is made of four different chemical bases. Thymine (T), Adenine (A), Guanine (G) and Cytosine (C). These bases pain up with each other (A with T) through 2 hydrogen bonds and (C with G) through 3 hydrogen bonds. The 3 hydrogen bonds in C-G make them stronger than the A-T bond.

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